Title of paper

Role of Collective Action and Property Rights on Lowland Bamboo (Oxytenanthera Abyssinica) Deforestation in Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia

Presenter information

Semeneh Bessie DestaFollow

Presenter's country

Ethiopia

Start Date

28-5-2016 10:55 AM

End Date

28-5-2016 12:00 PM

Location

Hall I

Submission type

Presentation

Abstract

Benishangul-Gumuz Region is known as the land of lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) accounting for about 56 % of bamboo forests in Ethiopia. However, bamboo deforestation has become a serious problem threatening the biodiversity and the people who depend on bamboo income. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine perceptions of smallholder farmers towards bamboo deforestation, identify the driving forces behind bamboo deforestation and evaluate the roles of collective action and property rights in overcoming the problem. The data were collected in 2014 from a sample of 384 households’ selected using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Factors analysis, descriptive statistics and econometric were employed to estimate households’ perception, interdependence of perceived effects on bamboo deforestation, intensity of deforestation and participation in collective action, respectively. The study revealed that farmers in the study area participate in three types of collective forest management initiatives: participation in conservation of the forest, participation in hazard management and joint participation in bamboo conservation and hazard management. These strategies were found to be helpful in reducing the rate of deforestation. The factors analysis identified 3-latent factors (perceived economic, environmental and social effects) of bamboo deforestation and illustrated that an array of impact indicators exist. Seemingly unrelated regression model results of households’ perception showed that economic, environmental and social effects of bamboo deforestation were positivity interdependent, and influenced by four common underlying variables. Tobit regression results indicated that proximity from bamboo area, duration in the study area, knowledge of the resource condition and participation in collective action played positive role in curbing the intensity of bamboo deforestation. Multinomial probit model results revealed that age of the household heads, household size, settlement condition, and access to information, strength of social capital and networking, and secure property right positively influenced households’ participation decision in collective action. Analysis of bamboo property rights change and effects of the change on bamboo forest revealed the existence of intensive competition among large-scale investors, government organizations, bamboo smugglers and the local communities over bamboo forest. The results showed that institutional factors seem to be the main driving force behind property rights change. Transferring traditional bamboo use rights from local communities to the private investors have undergone some adverse effects including ownership disputes, occurrence of frequent bushfire and bamboo forest degradation. The findings generally indicated that there is an urgent need to strengthen forest tenure rights and collective action institutions to manage local bamboo resources effectively.

Keywords

Keywords: Driving forces, forest management initiatives, lowland bamboo, smallholder farmers

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May 28th, 10:55 AM May 28th, 12:00 PM

Role of Collective Action and Property Rights on Lowland Bamboo (Oxytenanthera Abyssinica) Deforestation in Benishangul-Gumuz Region, Ethiopia

Hall I

Benishangul-Gumuz Region is known as the land of lowland bamboo (Oxytenanthera abyssinica) accounting for about 56 % of bamboo forests in Ethiopia. However, bamboo deforestation has become a serious problem threatening the biodiversity and the people who depend on bamboo income. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to examine perceptions of smallholder farmers towards bamboo deforestation, identify the driving forces behind bamboo deforestation and evaluate the roles of collective action and property rights in overcoming the problem. The data were collected in 2014 from a sample of 384 households’ selected using multistage stratified random sampling technique. Factors analysis, descriptive statistics and econometric were employed to estimate households’ perception, interdependence of perceived effects on bamboo deforestation, intensity of deforestation and participation in collective action, respectively. The study revealed that farmers in the study area participate in three types of collective forest management initiatives: participation in conservation of the forest, participation in hazard management and joint participation in bamboo conservation and hazard management. These strategies were found to be helpful in reducing the rate of deforestation. The factors analysis identified 3-latent factors (perceived economic, environmental and social effects) of bamboo deforestation and illustrated that an array of impact indicators exist. Seemingly unrelated regression model results of households’ perception showed that economic, environmental and social effects of bamboo deforestation were positivity interdependent, and influenced by four common underlying variables. Tobit regression results indicated that proximity from bamboo area, duration in the study area, knowledge of the resource condition and participation in collective action played positive role in curbing the intensity of bamboo deforestation. Multinomial probit model results revealed that age of the household heads, household size, settlement condition, and access to information, strength of social capital and networking, and secure property right positively influenced households’ participation decision in collective action. Analysis of bamboo property rights change and effects of the change on bamboo forest revealed the existence of intensive competition among large-scale investors, government organizations, bamboo smugglers and the local communities over bamboo forest. The results showed that institutional factors seem to be the main driving force behind property rights change. Transferring traditional bamboo use rights from local communities to the private investors have undergone some adverse effects including ownership disputes, occurrence of frequent bushfire and bamboo forest degradation. The findings generally indicated that there is an urgent need to strengthen forest tenure rights and collective action institutions to manage local bamboo resources effectively.