Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Educational Studies (to 2007)

First Advisor

Dr. Brooks Applegate

Second Advisor

Dr. Dale Brethower

Third Advisor

Dr. Robert Brinkerhoff


Performance management systems serve strategic, administrative, and developmental purposes; therefore, their role in an organization cannot be overestimated. As a function of this strategic role, different evaluation models have been developed and implemented by organizations: BSC, CIPP, TQM, Six Sigma, and AOP.

Following a review of current evaluation theory and practice models that focus on improving strategic decision-making in organizations, four research questions were developed that sought to identify the interrelationships, evaluation components, evaluation indicators, data collected to support the evaluation,evaluation implementation protocols, quantitative and qualitative analyses, outcomes, and critical factors of the BSC and CIPP models.

A multiple case study research method was used to address the study questions. Four BSC and two CIPP cases were studied. A comparison of outcomes revealed that both models were implemented in organizations to maintain focus, assess and monitor performance, reinforce communication of the strategicobjectives, and improve performance controls. The BSC model's implementation protocol followed the five management principles of "Strategy-Focused Organization." Alternatively, the CIPP model used four types of evaluations. Analyses revealed relationships between the BSC and CIPP, such that both modelsshare compatible evaluation components and collect similar evaluative information. However, the BSC model cases tended to use quantitative evaluationindicators, while CIPP cases employed mostly qualitative evaluation indicators. Both models used tools to develop focus and organizational alignment in their organizations.

The greatest difference between BSC and CIPP focused on the critical factors for successful implementation. For BSC, they included management support, merging it with TQM and Six Sigma, use of software tools, and alignment of evaluation indicators at all organizational levels. The CIPP model's critical factors included stakeholders support, use of different types of evaluation, use of triangulation methods, and use of communication mechanisms.

Finally, this study proposes a hybrid BSC/CIPP model for strategic decision-making. Justification for the hybrid model focuses on its value in the context of managerial strategic decision-making.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access