Date of Award
Doctor of Philosophy
Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology
Dr. Ada Sinacore-Guinn
Dr. Edward Trembley
Dr. Robert Betz
Dr. Frank Gross
This research addressed the question of whether or not religiosity and irrational beliefs were predictors of depression or guilt for men who were in gender-traditional and gender-nontraditional occupations. This was a correlational regression study. Religiosity was measured by the Religiosity Scale, irrational beliefs were measured by the Personal Beliefs Test, guilt was measured by the Situational Guilt Scale, depression was measured by the Beck Depression Inventory. It was anticipated that religiosity would be a predictor of depression and guilt for gender-traditional men, and that endorsement of irrational beliefs would be a predictor of both depression and guilt for both groups. A group of 100 men participated in the study; 55 men were in gender-traditional occupations, 45 were in gender-nontraditional occupations; there were 48 heterosexuals and 52 homosexuals.
The gender-nontraditional men engaged less in religious practice, prayed less, and stated that religion had less of an influence on their lives than gendertraditional men. As predicted, endorsement of irrational beliefs was a predictor of depression for gender-traditional men. Also as predicted, endorsement of irrational beliefs was a predictor of guilt for gender-traditional men. Even though gender-nontraditional men had a statistically significant higher level of guilt than gender-traditional men, the endorsement of irrational beliefs was not a predictor of guilt for gender-nontraditional men. Contrary to what was predicted, religiosity did not mediate guilt or depression for any group. However, backward regression analysis revealed that religiosity, when combined with irrational beliefs, became a significant predictor of depression for gender-traditional men. Contrary to what was predicted, there was not a statistically significant difference in the depression scores between traditional and nontraditional men. The level of endorsement of irrational beliefs was the only statistically significant difference between heterosexuals and homosexuals; homosexual men had a higher level of rationality than heterosexual men. There was no statistically significant difference in guilt, depression, or religiosity by sexual orientation. The data indicated that gendernontraditional homosexual men were more angry, more ashamed, and felt guiltier than gender-traditional homosexual men. There were no statistically significant differences between gender-traditional and gender-nontraditional heterosexuals
Snyder, Daniel L., "The Mediating Effects of Religiosity and Irrational Beliefs in the Differential Experiences of Guilt and Depression in Gender-Traditional and Gender-Nontraditional Men" (1996). Dissertations. 1701.