Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. John Geisler

Second Advisor

Dr. Robert Betz

Third Advisor

Dr. Lewis Walker


The purpose of this research was to study the effects of a residential basic counseling skills training program on the interpersonal behavior of the participants.

The research design for this study was a pre- and post-test experimental and control group method. Program participants were 81 juvenile court workers with experience ranging from less than one to more than 20 years. The control group was 41 juvenile detention home workers in six locations throughout the State of Michigan who did not participate in the training.

The FIRO-B (Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation-Behavior) pre-test was administered to the experimental and control groups at the beginning of the week-long counseling skills seminar. The post-test was administered to both groups at the completion of the seminar.

The t-test was the principal statistical procedure used in this study. When testing for the significant difference between change score means an uncorrelated t-test model was used. The .05 probability level was applied to accept or reject the null hypotheses of no difference.

When pre- and post-test change scores between the control and experimental groups on the Wanted Inclusion Scale were evaluated, the results indicated that the training seminar had a significant impact upon the participants' attitude toward "wanting to be included" in interpersonal situations.

A relatively low score on the post-test Expressed Control Scale gives evidence that the seminar did have some impact upon how the experimental group members act out their perceived leadership roles. This change was toward a less controlling mode.

The remainder of the FIRO-B scale scores give evidence of experimental group pre-seminar behavior that can be characterized as balanced between a need for overly close and overly distant interpersonal relationships. This behavior was not significantly changed because of participation in the training seminar. It was concluded that the seminar functioned effectively in encouraging the continuance of this behavior. The control group pre-test scores point to a more cautious approach to interacting with others that remained unchanged.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access