Realizing sustainable development is a major challenge for most African countries. Economic growth in most African countries is largely centered on the extraction of natural resources, particularly minerals. Rather than facilitate development, the extraction of natural resources in most countries, has been a source of adverse outcomes. That is, natural resources led to ‘the resource curse’, partly because of bad governance and leadership. Through governance and leadership, Botswana emerged differently. The country transformed itself to a middle income status through the prudent utilization and management of mineral (non-renewable) resources; making Botswana one of the few resource rich countries that have so far avoided the blight of the ‘the resource curse’. Yet, the sole reliance on one non-renewable resource is risky as evidenced by the recent global financial crisis. Sustainable development necessitates greater emphasis on renewable resources whose utilization and management require a different strategy to drive development forward. The paper identifies governance and leadership amongst the central tenets to Botswana’s development success story. It argues that, for the last four decades its governance and leadership strategy served the country well, given the context of the time. Going forward, an enhanced governance and leadership strategy is necessary to successfully exploit and manage the country’s resources for the benefit of all. To this extent, the paper concludes that other African countries need to consider and review their governance structures in order to realize sustainable development.
Sebudubudu, David; Makepe, Patricia M.; Montsi, Kgomotso; and Bodilenyane, Keratilwe
"Governance of Land and Natural Resource for Sustainable Development in Botswana: Possible Lessons for the Agricultural and Tourism Sectors,"
International Journal of African Development: Vol. 2
, Article 7.
Available at: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/ijad/vol2/iss1/7