The recent interest in various aspects of the Holocaust focus on survivors and their children. One major part of this research has focused on the medical and psychological sequels of the concentration camp and other Holocaust related experiences for which Eitinger (1981) identified seven distinct areas of inquiry. The literature in each of these areas is extensive; however, this work is fraught with problems both at the conceptual and at the treatment levels. This paper is specifically concerned with reviewing research and treatment programs, identifying the major problem areas, and concludes with a suggested conceptual alternative to the prevailing clinical models.