The longstanding presence of African Americans in Philadelphia explains the establishment of social welfare institutions and agencies by more affluent African Americans in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The Armstrong Association of Philadelphia and Women's Christian Alliance are two of the more prominent and enduring efforts initiated by African Americans to serve their own. Both also provided a vehicle for training for African Americans who desired to join the new profession of social work.
"Social Work Services and Social Work Training for African Americans in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1900-1930,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 21
, Article 8.
Available at: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol21/iss1/8