All research related to under-utilization of income maintenance programs as well as to their impact on recipients has discovered the presence of stigma. A survey of the pertinent literature points out that much is known about stigmatization but that social welfare has been slow to incorporate this knowledge in any attempt to reduce the destructive effect of stigma on program users. Both liberal and radical reform measures are proposed as remedies.
Wyers, Norman L.
"Shame and Public Dependency: A Literature Review,"
The Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare: Vol. 4
, Article 14.
Available at: http://scholarworks.wmich.edu/jssw/vol4/iss6/14