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This systematic descriptive historical review was conducted to examine the status and trends in expository text structure instruction efficacy research for first through twelfth grade students. The analysis included sixty studies, which spanned the years 1978 to 2014. Descriptive dimensions of the research included study type, research design, treatment fidelity, school level, number of participants, service delivery settings, and comprehensiveness of demographic reporting, text structure instruction, and measurement. Researchers primarily used randomized and quasi-experimental research designs. Analysis of results revealed that (a) a relatively large number of text structure efficacy research studies have been conducted, (b) complete demographic information was difficult to ascertain for many of the participants, (c) researchers of few studies instructed students in all five expository text structures, (d) treatment fidelity data were often missing, and (e) researchers rarely used both direct and indirect measures of effects. Limitations of the analysis and future research directions are discussed.