Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. James M. Croteau

Second Advisor

Dr. Mary Z. Anderson

Third Advisor

Dr. Regena F. Nelson


This study explored the relationships among multicultural training, racial identity attitudes, gender identity attitudes, and multicultural competencies in counseling trainees. Two principal research hypotheses were generated. The first generally stated hypothesis was that racial identity and gender identity represent parallel processes for those whose racial and gender identities share a cultural status (minority-minority or majority-majority) and are independent processes for those whose identities do not share a cultural status (minority-majority). The second generally stated hypothesis was that multicultural training predicts racial identity attitudes, gender identity attitudes, and multicultural competencies, and that both racial and gender identity attitudes predict multicultural competencies. The hypotheses were explored separately for four racial/gender groups (Women of Color, White Women, Men of Color, and White Men). A survey was sent to 1309 counseling and counseling psychology graduate students either enrolled at a midwestem university or members of the Association of Multicultural Counseling and Development. The survey contained measures of the variables under study. Canonical Correlations and Structural Equation Model Analysis were used to test the hypotheses. Partial support was found for the hypothesis that identity attitudes would correlate in ways that matched the cultural statuses of the participants’ racial/gender group. The results for Women of Color (minority-minority) and White Men (majority-majority) were parallel as predicted. The result for Men of Color (minority-majority) showed no relationship between the two types of identity as predicted. Results for White Women (majority-minority) were not as predicted. The hypothesis about the predictive relationships among variables was not supported. The lack of support for the final hypothesis appears to be due to two things, strong correlations between identity attitudes and lack of effect between multicultural training and identity attitudes. The strong correlations between identity attitudes (racial and gender) demonstrate shared variance. Therefore, one identity provides a good explanation for the variance in multicultural competencies, but adding a second identity type to the variables in the prediction does not add substantial explanatory power. These two effects suggest that while identity attitudes may be important in the acquisition of multicultural competencies, multicultural training may not be effecting substantial change in identity attitudes.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access