Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Robert Betz

Second Advisor

Dr. Mary Z. Anderson

Third Advisor

Dr. Lewis Walker


Perceptions of clinical supervision of 175 majority and minority counseling psychology doctoral students selected from a national pool was the study’s focal point. Instruments used were the Revised Relational Inventory (RRI; Barrett- Lennard, 1962; Schacht, Howe, & Berman, 1988) and the Supervision Perception Form-Trainee (SPF-T) developed by Heppner and Roehlke (1984). Participants were instructed to based their ratings on their last supervision experience. Data were collected and scored on the five subscales o f the RRI (Congruence, Empathetic Understanding, Regard, Unconditionality, and Willingness to be Known) and the two subscales of the SPF-T (Willingness to Learn and Supervisory Impact).

A factor analysis was conducted on each of the two scales using maximum likelihood estimation method. Approximately 80% of the items loaded on their proposed scales, while others were ambiguous. Therefore, the subscales designed by Schacht et al. (1988) for the RRI and Heppner and Roehlke (1984) for the SPF-T were maintained.

All of the hypotheses were concerned with race main effects and each showed statistical differences between minority and majority students’ perception on all seven subscales atp < .05.

An ANOVA for unequal group sizes or unbalanced design was used to check mean differences between race, age, and experience and the interaction of age, experience, and race in rating the seven subscales. The univariate and bivariate crossclassification and frequencies provided the basis for inclusion and exclusion of demographic variables. A three-way fully crossed ANOVA was performed to examine the effects of race, age, and experience on supervisory characteristics.

Although majority supervisees rated their supervisors higher than minority supervisees on all seven subscales, these differences significantly interacted with experience and/or age. These significant interactions demonstrated that differences were significant primarily with older and less experienced majority supervisees.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access