Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Michael Bahr

Second Advisor

Dr. Karen Blaisure

Third Advisor

Dr. C. Richard Spates

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Alan Hovestadt


This investigation explored the underlying constructs of Clarke’s Educational Affirmations, a set of 54 statements designed to support the development of healthy self-esteem and the accomplishment of the developmental tasks of the psychosocial stages theorized by Erikson. The Preliminary Educational Affirmations Scale (PEAS), a transformed version of the Educational Affirmations, was devised and administered to 520 community college students. A principal components factor analysis of the results indicates the presence of two main factors that accounted for 28% of the total variance in the data, and offers partial support for the hypothesized factors of worthiness (Being) and competence (Doing).

The scientific literature concerning affirmations, the technique of using intentional positive thoughts or statements to bring about or reinforce change in oneself or others, was reviewed and discussed, and suggestions for further research on affirmations in general, and Educational Affirmations in particular, were offered.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access