Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership, Research and Technology

First Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Second Advisor

Dr. Patrick Jenlink

Third Advisor

Dr. Ronald Crowell


The focus of this study is to find out the difference in perceptions of teachers on principal effectiveness among two groups of secondary school teachers in Malaysia, namely: (1) graduate and non-graduate teachers, and (2) junior and senior teachers, in seven dimensions of principal effectiveness: (1) leadership, (2) school rules and procedures, (3) school learning climate, (4) teacher/staff relations and development, (5) student relations and development, (6) school-community relations, and (7) instructional supervision and development.

The sample of this study consisted of all teachers who had been teaching more than one year and had a formal teacher training from 15 grade B secondary schools in the districts of Johore Bahru, Kulai and Pontian, the State of Johore, Malaysia. A total of 500 questionnaires were distributed to the potential respondents and 449 (89.9%) were returned. Out of this number (449), only 425 (94.6%) could be used. The instruments used for collecting the data and information were questionnaires and interviews. The questionnaire was constructed by the researcher. One-way ANOVA was used to test the difference in means score of perception using .05 as the alpha level. One teacher from each of the 15 Reproduced with permission of the copyright owner. Further reproduction prohibited without permission. schools was randomly selected to be interviewed.

With the use of one-way ANOVA, a difference in perceptions on principal effectiveness between the graduate and non-graduate respondents in each of the seven dimensions of principal effectiveness was not found. However, there was a difference in perceptions between juniors and seniors in each of the seven dimensions. Seniors had higher perceptions of their principals’ effectiveness than did juniors.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access