Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Thelma Urbick

Second Advisor

Dr. Melanie Warnke

Third Advisor

Dr. Barbara Harris

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Jack Humbert


The premise of this study is that high school women who complete course work in advanced mathematics and advanced science and participate in organized athletic programs will develop skills, knowledge, and attitudes that facilitate and encourage expanded options in their occupational expectations. It was hypothesized that such women would have occupational expectations that reflect a greater degree of gender integration or nontraditionality than women who do not participate in such activities. Other environmental or attribute variables such as parents' occupation, birth order, and constructs of self concept, were examined for intervening or modifying effects on the major premise.

Participants in the study were 73 eleventh and twelfth grade students from a high school located in a suburban neighborhood in the Midwest. The study used two instruments. The first was a locally prepared questionnaire that elicited the academic, athletic, and demographic characteristics of the participants as well as their career expectations. The second instrument was the Multidimensional Self Concept Scale (MSCS, Bracken, 1992) which assessed self concept both globally and in the six domains: social, competence, affect, academic, family, and physical. Academic course work was quantified by calculating cumulative honor points. Athletics was quantified by assigning points for each year and level of participation. A summary composite score was calculated by combining academic and athletic scores. Demographic data having to do with birth order and parental occupation were distilled to dichotomous choices.

Results of one-way ANOVA indicated that women who chose integrated or nontraditional occupations scored significantly higher (jd < .05) in mathematics, science, and in the composite of all activities than did women who selected traditional occupations. Results of t tests for independent means based on parents' occupational level showed that daughters of professionally employed parents were significantly more likely to participate in advanced mathematics and science classes as well as athletics than other women. The t test also showed that these same women viewed themselves lower in social self concept than did the daughters of nonprofessionally employed parents. Chi-square analyses of both parental level of employment and birth order were inconclusive.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access