Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Wayne Fuqua

Second Advisor

Dr. Ennis Berker

Third Advisor

Dr. Robert Betz

Fourth Advisor

Dr. John Geisler


This study examined the effect of physiological arousal on subjects' time production skills. Time perception is a major element in clinical theories of demandingness and time urgency within the Type A behavior pattern.

Subjects were 94 graduate students, including 67 females and 27 males. They were assigned randomly to three groups: a control group and experimental Groups A and B. All subjects performed 15-, 30-, and 45-second pretest and posttest time production trials. The primary treatment for experimental groups was rapid breathing to increase subjects' heart beat at least 10% above their resting rate. Heart beat was measured by a HR/BVP 110T biofeedback instrument. The testing limit was 140 heart beats per minute. The secondary treatment for experimental Group B was foreknowledge about the experiment which subjects received prior to the timed trials.

A one-way ANOVA of standard, raw data revealed no significant differences between experimental groups due to secondary treatment and none between Group A and the control group due to primary treatment, but there was significance between Group B and the control group. Conversion of raw data to absolute values produced significant differences between Group A and the control group and Group B and the controls from primary treatment. A probability of .05 was utilized throughout the study. An abnormal distribution of Group A subjects on the normal distribution curve seemed probable.

All groups experienced difficulty in reproducing accurate time intervals in relation to pretrial times. Mean differences compared to pretrial means (baseline) showed moderate-high percentages of time error or distortion, including the control group.

Results suggested that individuals have high variability in time judgment and that arousal, generally free of intense cognitive content/ process, can increase error percentage.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access

Included in

Counseling Commons