Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Uldis Smidchens

Second Advisor

Dr. Charles Warfield

Third Advisor

Dr. Raymond Alie


This study examined the extent to which executives' perceptions of their managerial leadership behaviors compare to their role-set's perceptions of the same behaviors. Additionally, the difference between the perceptions was related to the identified requisite executive skills and behaviors. Executives and their role-set were informed of the developmental purpose for which they were making the ratings. An executive's role-set is comprised of superior, peers, and subordinates, who spend significant amounts of time with the executive and are best able to observe the executive's behavior.

The Management Skills Profile (MSP) was used to investigate self and each role-set group's ratings of executive behaviors. Additionally, four openended questions allowed executives to identify the critical skills and behaviors needed within the organization. One-hundred and twenty-three executives from the top three organizational levels, and 1,107 members of their role-set, representing locations for factories and field offices, constituted the study. Behavior ratings were analyzed for ninety-eight executives and seven-hundred-and-sixty-two members of their role-set.

Two major hypotheses guided the investigation: (a) there are differences and relationships between self, superior, subordinate, and peer ratings of executive managerial leadership behaviors, and (b) there are differences between those needs identified by executives whose self ratings are congruent with their role-set's ratings and those needs identified by executives with incongruent ratings. Variables were ratings of the extent of observed behaviors and congruence categories. Ratings were made by four groups: self, superior, subordinates, and peers.

The pattern and strength of relationship between group pairs were examined. Results showed that at the skills and behavior levels, (a) the rating patterns between groups of raters are related and, (b) there are differences between group ratings. Superiors and subordinate ratings exhibited the most numbers of behaviors with related ratings and differences between the ratings. Additionally, substantially different needs were identified by executives whose ratings are congruent with their role-set ratings. Fifteen requisite managerial leadership behaviors were identified for executive development, with one of those behaviors emerging from both the self and role-set rating comparison and from the responses to the open-ended questions.

Recommendations are made for (a) future studies of role-set ratings; (b) the use of role-set ratings for planning development experiences; and (c) the combination of closed- and open-ended questions.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access