Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership, Research and Technology


The purpose of this study was to determine the current amount of Implementation of the 18 middle school characteristics as reported by principals from randomly selected middle level schools In the state of Michigan and In middle level schools designated as Blue Ribbon schools (U.S. Department of Education, 1991). This study used a survey questionnaire that was initially designed by RIegle (1971) to measure the rate of Implementation of the middle school characteristics. The survey was mailed to Michigan and Blue Ribbon middle level school principals, selected randomly via a table of random numbers. The return rate for Michigan schools stood at 73.44 % , with a sample validity of .05. The Blue Ribbon schools' response rate was 90% .

The overall percentage of Implementation of the basic middle school characteristics for Michigan middle level schools stands at 56.87% , compared with the Blue Ribbon schools at 67.4% . Michigan schools designated as middle schools earned a 57.65% overall Implementation rate as compared with Michigan schools designated as junior high schools earning a 53.44% Implementation rate.

Significant differences In mean Implementation scores between Michigan schools and Blue Ribbon schools were found at the .01 level for 12 characteristics. Significant differences at the .01 level between mean implementation scores of middle schools and junior high schools were found regarding 8 characteristics.

The individual characteristic data suggest some unique trends when compared to data collected in 1974. Recommendations include reorganizing the basic middle school characteristics into two groupings. Group 1 consists of 8 high usage middle school characteristics and Group 2 contains 10 low usage middle school characteristics.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access