Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. John Geisler

Second Advisor

Dr. Robert Betz

Third Advisor

Dr. Malcolm Robertson


The present study explores non-sexual activities between supervisors and supervisees outside the context of psychotherapy supervision. The two general questions posed in this study are (1) what is the nature of non-sexual activity between supervisors and supervisees outside of supervision, and (2 ) what is the perceived impact (if any) on the supervision process?

Questionnaires were distributed to matched pairs of supervisory dyads at APA-approved predoctoral internship sites. The two types of internships included in the study were counseling centers at universities, and psychiatric hospitals. Sixty-six supervisory dyads were included in the analysis, selected from 152 returned questionnaires. The respondents represented a 76% return rate of distributed questionnaires.

Results showed minimal reported contact outside of supervision. The three most common activities reported by supervisors and supervisees were activities which were closely related to the internship experience (attending seminars, going to lunch together, and going to work related parties). No differences in reported activity were found between males and females, clinical versus counseling psychology participants, and same-sex versus opposite-sex supervisory dyads. Activity outside of supervision also did not vary significantly due to time spent in supervision and whether the respondents "liked" their supervisor or supervisee personally or professionally. One significant finding was that supervisees desired more contact outside of supervision than did supervisors. A discussion of the results is presented as well as recommendations for further research.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access