Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Dale M Brethower

Second Advisor

Dr. Richard Malott

Third Advisor

Dr. Roger Ulrich

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Ronald Crowell


Two experiments were performed to examine the effectiveness of three study aids: (1) information maps, (2) behavioral objectives, and (3) the students' own strategies in reorganizing written material. A training workshop was given prior to the first experiment to teach the students appropriate skills to use to read research articles (e.g., generating and answering questions, filling out and generating information maps). Eighteen undergraduate students participated in the study. In the first experiment, students were randomly assigned to three groups. The researcher provided students with a research article every week for three weeks, together with either an information map, a set of behavioral objectives, or instructions to write their own notes. One study aid was used each week by each group; every group used each of the three study aids once. A time to review their products was given to students followed by a multiple choice (immediate) exam. A non-announced delayed exam was given three weeks after each immediate exam. In the second experiment subjects were redistributed according to their performance on the first three examinations. The same procedure was followed, but the researcher provided the students with the behavioral objectives and the students were asked to generate their own information map or students' own notes. The first three exams were given in one week over three consecutive days, and the three delayed exams were given two weeks later over three consecutive days. The results of the first experiment showed that both information maps and behavioral objectives were statistically significantly better than students' own notes. A practice effect was noticed in the improvement of the students' performance as a result of using the study aids. However, the results of the delayed exams indicated no significant difference. The results of the second experiment showed no significant difference between the three study aids in the immediate examinations or in the delayed examinations.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access