Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Robert M. Oswald

Second Advisor

Dr. John Geisler

Third Advisor

Dr. Robert Brashear


The purpose of this study was to investigate depression and anxiety in postmenopausal women. The study examined four areas: race, hormone state, number of menopause symptoms, and demographic data.

The sample consisted of 90 women between the ages of 45 and 65. All subjects had completed either natural or surgical menopause by a minimum of one year. The subjects were volunteers from the West Michigan area.

There were 30 subjects from each of the following race categories: black, white, and Hispanic. On the basis of self reports, the subjects were assigned to one of the following hormone state groups: (a) women who take hormones, (b) women who sought or tried to take hormones but were unable to take them, and (c) women who sought no hormone treatment.

A personal questionnaire was used to obtain demographic information about the participants. Three instruments were used to measure the dependent variables. The Self Analysis Form by the Institute for Personality and Ability Testing (IPAT) was used to assess anxiety levels. The Personal Assessment Inventory (IPAT) was used to measure levels of depression and Neugarten's Menopause Symptoms Checklist was used to report number of menopause symptoms.

Statistical analyses were performed using one and two way analysis of variance, simple regression, and summary statistics. The Bonferroni (Dunn) t Test, the Ryan, Einot, Gabriel, and Welsh Multiple Range Test, and the Chi Square test were used to make multiple comparisons with a.05 level of significance.

It was hypothesized depression and anxiety were not related to hormone state or race. Ancillary questions were posed concerning the relationship of depression and anxiety to number of menopause symptoms, age, educational status, employment status, family status, household status, health, weight, and sexual activity.

Results lead to the conclusion that depression and anxiety in postmenopausal women were not related to hormone state, race, age, weight, sexual activity, and family status. However, depression was related to number of menopause symptoms, education, household status, and health. Anxiety was related to number of menopause symptoms, education, and employment.

Discussion of the results include implications of the findings and suggestions for future research.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access