Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Education


Educational Leadership

First Advisor

Dr. Donald C. Weaver

Second Advisor

Dr. Lewis Walker

Third Advisor

Dr. Lawrence Schlack


The major focus of this study was the development, use and assessment of instructional materials for teaching leadership awareness to second grade children. The purposes of the study were (1) to determine if there is a need for instructional materials to teach leadership awareness, (2) to determine how teachers and experts would use instructional materials, and (3) to determine the opinions of teachers about the Leadership is Vital to Education (L.I.V.E.) Series developed in this study. The materials in this study were evaluated as an instructional method which could be used to (1) develop in students an awareness of the concept of leadership, (2) develop in students a proficiency in skills directly related to becoming capable, creative leaders and/or thinkers, and (3) motivate students to utilize these skills in their daily life situations.

Seven second grade teachers from the Kalamazoo Public School System in Kalamazoo, Michigan, and four experts in the field of early childhood education comprised the sample in this study. The instructional materials developed in this study included: (1) discussion and problem solving cards, (2) self concept building materials, (3) creative thinking and sequential thought materials, (4) information sheets on leadership skills, and (5) activities designed to increase listening skills. Seven leadership skills frequently found in the literature were addressed: (1) critical listening, (2) oral communication, (3) written communication, (4) sequential thought organization, (5) decision making, (6) problem solving, and (7) group leadership techniques. A teachers manual was developed for use with the L.I.V.E. Series. The materials were used by the teachers and students in classroom learning activities during the 1982-83 school year.

An opinion questionnaire was used to solicit opinions and/or recommendations from the two sample groups.

The major conclusions drawn from this study were: (1) There is a need for instructional materials in leadership awareness for use in the elementary grades. (2) Teachers and experts judged the L.I.V.E. Series to be: (a) of high educational value; (b) free of negative stereotypes; (c) appropriate for second grade students; (d) unique in format compared to other materials; (e) useable without in-service training. (3) Teachers and experts agree that the concept of leadership can be successfully grasped by second grade children.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access