Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Ron Van Houten

Second Advisor

Dr. Heather McGee

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Malott

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Brian Cole


Pedestrian safety, crosswalk, generalization, gateway prompt


Pedestrian safety continues to be an important research topic, especially since recent data show a small increase in pedestrian fatalities (USGAO, 2015). There have been several interventions that prompt pedestrians, but especially motorists, to yield properly at uncontrolled crosswalks (Van Houten, 1988; Van Houten & Malenfant, 1992; Nasar, 2003; Crowley-Koch, Van Houten & Lim, 2008). One low-cost intervention that has been successful is the R1-6 in road yielding sign (Kannel, Souleyrette, & Tenges, 2003). When this sign is laid out purposefully across a crosswalk (called a gateway), it has resulted in substantial increases in yielding compared to baseline conditions. In addition to being an effective treatment, the gateway configuration is also cost effective, costing only $900 vs. $10,000 – $120,000 for more technological alternatives (Shurbutt, Van Houten, Turner & Huitema, 2009). This study assessed whether generalization of yielding behavior would occur if the gateway was used on one of the two crosswalks of the intervention site (i.e., whether motorists’ yielding behavior at a non-gateway crosswalk would increase, decrease, or maintain if the other crosswalk had the gateway intervention installed). An alternating treatments and reversal design was used to determine the effects of generalization at an uncontrolled crosswalk in the Midwest. The results showed motorist yielding at generalization crosswalks was higher than baseline, but lower than crosswalks with the gateway installed. Additionally, driving through the gateway resulted in higher motorist yielding at the generalization crosswalk. The findings may have implications for intervention design and city planning.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access