Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Counselor Education and Counseling Psychology

First Advisor

Dr. Mary Z. Anderson

Second Advisor

Dr. Lonnie E. Duncan

Third Advisor

Dr. Earlie M. Washington


Eurocentrism in multicultural education and training cannot provide a full and accurate understanding of Black/African-American reality. Therefore, the training of Black/African Americans in psychology is, indeed, dismal (Nobles, 1986). Consequently, Black/African American trainees are not learning how to help Black/ African people become healthy as health is assumed and taught under Eurocentric guidelines. Research deliberately intended to explore the process by which Black/African-American trainees become multiculturally competent is greatly needed.

Given that multicultural competence functions as an interactive dynamic social sequel that is constantly changing, the unique challenges wrought by deeply entrenched racism and oppression that Black/ African-Americans continue to face warrants attention in multicultural education and training. Particularly, the "how" they are able to become multiculturally competent with barriers such as racialization and limited training intended for their needs.

Purposeful sampling was used to select nine Black/ African-American counseling professionals within the U.S. Selection of potential participants was based on criteria aimed at providing data that is rich and details the process by which Black/ African-American counseling professionals develop multicultural competence. All nine participants consented to participate in an in-depth individual interview. Following the individual interviews, two on-line focus groups were created. The Internet was used to conduct the on-line focus group discussions. Six out of the nine participants consented to participate in the on-line focus group discussions. The open-ended questions that were used to moderate the on-line focus group discussions were based on the responses from the in-depth individual interviews. Participants were asked to engage in discussions at their convenience, at least three days out of a week, over the course of two weeks.

Through the systematic design of grounded theory, the essential dynamics involved in the process by which Black/ African-American counseling professionals become multiculturally competent emerged and a resultant theoretical framework was established. The MMCBA model, depicts that a multicultural framework is essential in optimizing the development of multicultural competence for Black/ African-American trainees. This framework delineates Black/ African- American trainees, race, multiculturalism, their lived experiences as a minority, environment, societal influences, attitudes, beliefs, and actions, interpersonal processes, multicultural education, and training as interactive, interconnected concepts fundamental to how Black/ African-American trainees become multiculturally competent.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Campus Only