Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Interdisciplinary Health Sciences

First Advisor

Dr. Kieran Fogarty

Second Advisor

Dr. Amos Aduroja

Third Advisor

Dr. Nicole Franklin

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Adriane MacPhedran


Atrial fibrillation, sotalol, dotetilide, anti-arrhythmic drugs, inequities in clinical trials, intersectionality



The purpose of this study is to explore the association between gender and racial lines in the conversion and sustainment of normal sinus rhythm (NSR) from paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF) and persistent atrial fibrillation using the anti-arrhythmic drugs (AADs) sotalol and dofetilide.


A secondary data analysis was performed to assess the relationships of the independent and dependent variables listed above. Using SPSS v. 24 descriptive statistics were obtained and initially evaluated for accuracy with histograms. A cross-tabulation frequency table was produced to determine the number of variables that fell into each dependent category. Following this, the frequencies were checked to ensure that the assumption for chi-square had been met. As the chi-square assumption had not been met with respect to race, this variable was discarded for future data analysis. Fisher’s exact test was used to determine statistical significance of any association between independent and dependent variables. Human Subjects Review Board approval was obtained at Western Michigan University and the participating institution where the study was performed.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access