Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy


Science Education

First Advisor

Dr. William W. Cobern

Second Advisor

Dr. Brandy A-S. Pleasants

Third Advisor

Dr. Marcia K. Fetters


21st century learning skills, skills integration, Indonesia science instruction


Science and technology education are essential subjects for achieving the desired workforce skills for the 21st century (Bybee & Fuchs, 2006). In 2017, Indonesia adopted the 21st century learning and innovation framework into its national curriculum to address the demand to improve students’ readiness for the complexity of the future whether for the work environment or in their personal lives. This learning and innovation skills framework focuses on the development the skills of creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, collaboration, and communication, known as the 4Cs. However, there is little knowledge on the integration of these skills into the practices of Indonesian science instruction. Literature suggests that effective implementation of the curriculum reform can be seen on the basis of the organizational and individual perspectives and preparation of teachers to ensure that the newly established curriculum and suggested teaching techniques are provided with the actual classroom activities. To address the lack of curriculum revision implementation research in Indonesia, I completed three interconnected studies that can stand alone to explore various considerations for the effective implementation of curriculum reform.

The first study, using a qualitative design focuses on exploring teacher resources for integrating the 4Cs into science classrooms. A group of 28 vocational high school science teachers participated in study one. Teachers reported using more than one resource including open educational resources, teacher PD programs, teacher collaboration, and curriculum guidelines to help them prepare 4Cs integrated science instruction. For the second study, eighteen classroom observations and interview data from three chemistry teachers were used to examine how teachers elaborate their resources and to understand what factors that influence teachers to adopt pedagogical strategies to integrate 4Cs into science classrooms. Various factors effect teachers on using pedagogical strategies to integrate 4C, including student characteristics, the availability of learning tools and school facilities, and teacher mastery of the suggested teaching approach. The third study explored student-teacher interaction patterns in science classrooms that integrate 21st century learning skills. Teacher’s resources and availability of these resources are key factors for a thorough implementation of curriculum reform into actual practice. Exploring what resources are available, how Indonesian vocational high school science teachers use these resources for teaching planning, implementing 4Cs integrated lesson plan into science classrooms, and observing student-teachers interaction patterns in actual science classrooms offered valuable insights into the essence of teachers’ efforts to address the mandated 2017 curriculum revision.

The findings of these three studies could help teachers to reflect on their commitment to implement the mandated curriculum reform and to effectively provide learning experiences that will help students develop the skills of creativity and innovation, critical thinking and problem solving, collaboration, and communication. Findings may also encourage the Indonesian policy makers to better monitor, evaluate, and address teachers’ needs for effective implementation of the 2017 curriculum revision.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Campus Only

Restricted to Campus until