Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Alyce M. Dickinson

Second Advisor

Dr. John S. Austin

Third Advisor

Dr. Bradley E. Huitema

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Kevin J. Munson


Self-pacing, although often seen as one of the primary benefits of computer-based instruction (CBI), can also result in an important problem, namely, computer-based racing. Computer-based racing is when learners respond so quickly within CBI that mistakes are made, even on well-known material. This study compared traditional CBI with two forms of CBI designed to reduce computer-based racing: incentives/disincentives and postfeedback delays. All three formats were evaluated in terms of both performance and satisfaction using a between group repeated measures design with pretest and posttest. Dependent measures included posttest scores, satisfaction questionnaire ratings, percentage correct during learning, and total training time. Posttest scores favored the use of postfeedback delays to improve learning over incentives/disincentives and control conditions. Postfeedback delays negatively affected satisfaction in comparison to the control condition, although no satisfaction differences were found between incentives/disincentives and postfeedback delays.

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access