Date of Award


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy



First Advisor

Dr. Alyce M. Dickinson

Second Advisor

Dr. Jack Michael

Third Advisor

Dr. Richard Malott

Fourth Advisor

Dr. Kevin Munson


This study compared the effects of audio, textual, and audio-textual narration in a programmed instructional module on the performance of individuals with different reading abilities. One hundred eighty-four college students were randomly assigned to audio, textual, or audio-narration. Dependent variables were posttest score and instruction completion time. An ANCOVA was used to analyze the results, with ACT reading test scores as the covariate. No differences were found between the groups on posttest scores (p = .56) or completion time (p = .90), and there was no interaction between narration type and reading score for either dependent variable. Audio narration did not benefit learning in this study. Its benefits may be limited to instruction in which narrative and visual components cannot be understood in isolation, and when visual components do not require a great deal of searching. Reproduced

Access Setting

Dissertation-Open Access