Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


Liquid agglomeration is defined by references as a separation process (3). For the purpose of this thesis project, it is the process of using a hydrocarbon oil, dispersed in water, to a pulp slurry, to agglomerate the ink particles and then float them to the top. The idea behind this research is that the sludge produced will have a higher BTU value due to the hydrocarbon oil, which will make incineration a more feasible means of disposal. The preliminary work consisted of determining whether or not the ink particles would agglomerate with hexadecane. It was found that the ink particles did in fact agglomerate and hexadecane was an efficient agglomerating oil. Previous work had found that internal starch and internal size inhibited agglomeration, however, it is believed that if the right surface chemistry could be induced onto the fiber, the agglomeration process would be promoted (3). This was attempted by evaluating four different surfactants to determine if any of them could promote agglomeration. BRD2340, BRD2342, Busperse 47, an Busperse 59 were the surfactants chosen for evaluation. It was found that BRD2342 and BRD2340 were incapable of promoting agglomeration. However, Busperse 47 and Busperse 59 did promote agglomeration, with Busperse 59 visually performing the best. After the pulp had been run through the agglomeration cells, it was evaluated for pulp cleanliness. This was done by making brightness pads and running the pads through the Spec*Scan 2000 to determine dirt counts. It was found that the agglomeration cells could not perform as efficiently as an air flotation cell. However, it was observed that the liquid agglomeration process did increase the ink particles size. It is hypothesized that this may prove favorable in an air flotation cell. It can be concluded that the liquid agglomeration process needs additional research.