Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Ellsworth H. Shriver


The purpose of this thesis experiment was to study the effect of Poly-Aluminum Silicate Sulfate (PASS) on the retention of colored papers. This was performed to reduce the usage of Melamine Formaldehyde based retention aids due to their negative environmental impacts as well as to reduce the usage of Sodium Aluminate, a cationic additive and pH buffer, due to it's negative fade impact on colored papers.

This was accomplished using PASS as the retention aid mechanism and caustic soda as well as soda ash as pH buffers and cationic additives. Paper was made under alkaline conditions. Colored pigments were utilized to accomplish a critical color match.

This study was shown that by using the PASS product instead of the Melamine Formaldehyde/Sodium Aluminate combination that increased britt jar retention higher first pass retention on the papermachine, increased fade resistance, improved cost efficiency, and better environmental aspects were achieved.

The retention studies were performed with the dynamic drainage jar (britt jar) and the papermachine at Simpson Paper Company in Vicksburg, Michigan. Retention values improved for the papermachine study as compared to the laboratory setting.

Color-matching values were determined using the FMC-II method which is very similar in measurement technique to the L.a.b. values determined directly by the computer. Fade values were determined using a weatherometer.