Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Richard W. Flores


This Engineering Problem investigates the utilization of the horizontal and vertical size presses for optimum two-sided color correction.

This was accomplished by making paper at the Western Michigan University Pilot Plant Fourdrinier papermachine. Paper was made under an acid system and a neutral system. A red anionic direct dye was added at the wet-end to internally dye the sheet. Color two-sidedness was induced by manipulating and wet-end vacuum elements, as well as the Fourdrinier shake. In addition, the red anionic direct dye that was used is known for it's "topsided" characteristics.

The paper was then surface colored using the size presses. Trials were performed using a red anionic direct dye, a red cationic direct dye, and a red acid dye. These dyes were applied to the "lighter" wire side, along with ethylated starch: the felt side of the sheet had only ethylated starch applied at the size press.

Results show that anionic direct dye is the most economical dye to use in the size press for color two-sided correction. This is the case for either size press (horizontal or vertical). The results were also the same for both wet-end systems (acid and neutral). The ranking of the surface dyes, based on the addition rates required to maintain quality two-sided correction, were the anionic direct dye, followed by the acid dye, followed by the cationic direct dye (which was the most expensive to use at the size press.