Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology


The purpose of this thesis was to study fiber orientation in paper made on the pilot plant paper machine at Western Michigan University. The variables used in the study were fiber length and draw tensions. The shrinkage of the web was one dependent variable that was measured.

It was found that, on this paper machine, fiber orientation is independent of fiber length. Also, large draw tensions will increase the degree of orientation in the direction of the draw. And finally, increased draw tensions will result in an increase of MD elongation and CD shrinkage.

It is recommended here that further study be done in the area of refining and its affects on orientation.