Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology



When a load is applied to a sheet of paper, the paper may break immediately or it may support the load for some period of time. It is recognized that the paper, while under a stress less than that required to cause immediate break, is weakened until it is finally unable to support the stress. Since in the normal use of paper the stress to which paper is subjected is less than that needed to cause immediate break this weakening is an important factor in many cases.

A few examples of such cases are the winding of the paper onto the reel of the paper machine during manufacture, the use of paper in bags, and possibly most important of all the running of paper through a printing press.

Since approximately 90 per cent of all paper is printed by some means or another, and during the printing process the paper is subjected to stresses, the subject of weakening while under stress is very important. Should the paper be weakened to the breaking point in the printing operation, many costly shutdowns and wastes of materials could result.