Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology



The information presented in this literature survey was obtained through Western Michigan College Library, Kalamazoo Public Library, St. Regis Central Laboratory, and Kalamazoo Vegetable Parchment Research Library.

The following survey is the result of twelve weeks of library research and was done in accordance with the methods and rules prescribed by Course 436A, Pulp and Paper Technology, Western Michigan College of Education.

Considering retention, from a general point of view, we find in Webster's New International Dictionary that it is, "A retaining or holding fixed in some place or position; state of being kept in place." Sutermeister (20) gives the paper makers definition as being the percentage of filler added to the furnish which appears in the finished paper.