Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


Certain variables affecting the Canadian Standard Freeness Test were investigated. Variables investigated included the zeta potential, pH, chemical type, and concentration. Chemicals used were NaCl, CaCl, AlCl , and SnCl, 5H2O on the acid side. Chemicals used on the alkaline side included KCl, K2S4 and K2HPO4.. pH values were 4.5, 5.5, 6.5, 7.5, 8.5, and 9.5. Concentrations used were 1 x 10-3M, 3 x 10-3M, 5 x 10-3M, 7 x 10-3M, 9 x 10-3M, 1.1 X 10-2M, 1.3 x 10-2M, and 1.5 x 10-2M. Zeta potential was measured using a Laser Zee Meter. Quantitative interpretation of the Schulze-Hardy rule was attempted but failed. Freeness was found to decrease as zeta potential increased or decreased and was maximized as ZP closed in on a value of zero. Freeness was found to be affected most greatly by concentration-chemical type and chemical type-pH interaction. A statistical analysis was prepared to determine this interaction with the help of the W.M.U. Stat Lab.