Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering



Groundwater contamination is a large concern for everyone. Because of this many precautions are being taken to protect the groundwater. In addition, the availability of landfill area is decreasing because of the difficulty in siting new landfills due to the latest legislation. Therefore, landfill and/or design alternatives must be created to reduce the increasing cost of landfilling.

Two of the major sources of waste produced by the pulp and paper industry are wastewater treatment sludge and fly ash from the combustion of wood waste and coal. The current disposal method of these two wastes are in landfills. Alternatives are being looked at for disposing of the sludge including spreading on agricultural land or using it as a hydraulic barrier material for landfills.