Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology


The following report is an analysis of Paper Science and Engineering at Western Michigan University. This project was made as an indication of how the refiners at the tire pilot plan performed. This could also be used as ground work for further study of the refiners. For example, the new double disk refiner which was not in operation at the time when these tests were made could be compared to the other refiners in the pilot plant. It could also be the basis for refiner analysis with mixed hard and soft wood pulps.

This project was made to determine which of the refiners in the pilot plant made the strongest sheet. The Claflin accomplished this best. Good sheet formation was made by the Hollander Beater, but the sheets had the least durable strength. Test results of the Jordan fell between the beater and Claflin. This was surprising, because it was thought the Jordan would give good sheet strength.

Two lab refiners were used in this study. These were a Hollander beater and a disk refiner. These gave some very high test results. No correlation was found between the lab beater and the pilot plant beater. The results of the two did not come close in the strength tests. The lab refiners gave some very good results because the fibers were not out as much.

The opacity test was performed as an indication of how well the fibers tended to bond. The pilot plant refiners gave very close results, with the Claflin having the best. This indicated that it has better formation.

The study was performed on St. Regis bleached softwood. Each refiner was taken to a freeness of 345 Canadian Standard Freeness. This pulp was used to because of its availability and softwood seemed to be at the most desirable for this study.