Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology


The first attempt to apply operations research to the kraft industry came in 1959 by C.W. Carroll at the Institute of Paper Chemistry. Carroll developed a pulping rate expression and incorporated engineering balances to complete his mathematical model. Carroll then developed an optimization technique to optimize kraft mill economic performance.

This work develops the mathematical model utilizing a different pulping rate expression and further develops certain areas (e.g. recovery boiler, lime kiln, and washer models) utilizing regression equations obtained from literature and material and energy balances in an approach much like that of Boyle and Tobias.

An attempt was made to incorporate automatic step size reduction into Carroll's optimization method (Created Response Surface Technique). A comparison of a three-dimensional optimization output with that of Carroll's user-response program is included.

Results of the optimization comparison indicated that it is possible to incorporate automatic step size reduction and obtain better accuracy than Carroll reported. However, results indicate that it may be desirable to use the CRST to get close to the optimum and then use another technique to pinpoint the final optimum.

Comments on the Industrial Applicability of this approach are included.