Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


This reporting is a review of the current issue of knowledge in the area of size press variables. It delves into the sheet properties affected by the application of surface size.

A pilot plant study was conducted which evaluated the affect of Penford Gum 280. This starch was applied to the 46 pound 50% hardwood, 50% softwood, 15% clay filled sheet being formed on the 30 inch wide pilot papermachine at Western Michigan University. Starch application was made at various temperature and solids concentrations to obtain different amounts of pickup and variables deaths of penetration.

The results of this study include a plot of the intimate relationship of solids, temperature, viscosity, and pickup. There is also a plot of solids, temperature and death of penetrations influence on the amount of pickup. Sheet properties of burst, tensile, tear, TEA, elongation, stiffress, wax pick, K&N ink holdout, smoothness, and air permeability are evaluated. All properties were found to have maximum benefit from a 3% pickup range at different application temperatures. An attempt was made to evaluate the influence of penetration on the sheet properties. This evaluation was difficult because the increased depth of penetration was only half as deep as the original depth.