Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering

First Advisor

James E. Kline


In this experiment two coating clays and two filler clays were used as fillers to find the effect of particle size on optical properties on filled handsheets.

Klondyke and Nokarb were used as a filler clays to improve the optical properties. Coating clays, H. T. predispersed and Ultra-white-90 were less effective than filler clays. Scattering co-efficient can be improved with coating clays. The reason may be the smaller the particle size better scattering co-efficient. This experiment suggests alum is not necessary in order to improve the opacity and brightness of filler clays. Retention of Klyondyke and Nokarb increased without alum, suggesting that alum must be used at a proper pH in order to get the improvement in properties.