Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


When it comes to filler retention, the most frequently studied parameters are: Molecular weight of the retention aid, degree of agitation, and zeta potential.

Alum, as an electrolyte, and various polymers of the same chemical structure, but different molecular weights were evaluated for their performances in retaining TiO2. Different degrees of agitation were introduced to the stock to investigate the effect of turbulence on retention, and, finally, zeta potential was varied to observe its effect.

Higher molecular weight polymer was found to produce better retention. On the other hand, agitation reduced it. Retention seemed to be favorable with zeta potential values close to the iso-electric point or on the positive side.