Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


A literature review was conducted concerning material related to carboxylation of styrene-butadiene latexes, binder migration, and binder migration measurement. Theory showed the process by which styrene and butadiene monomers contribute to make up the polymer chain and the effect of S/B ratio, particle size, crosslinking and carboxylation by vinyl acid addition type, level and location on the chain. Binder migration parameters related to coated surface and base sheet migration were addressed, as was viscosity control to reduce migration. Measurement types including attenuated total reflectance (ATR) using the fourier transform infrared (FTIR) was reviewed.

Based on the literature an experimental procedure was implemented to study the effect that increased carboxylation of S/B latexes had on binder migration. A series of five latex samples, varying in level of carboxylation, was used to prepare a calibration curve and used in standard coating formulations under migration inducing trials. Viscosity corrected and uncorrected sets were run with each trial on Mylar, high-size and low-size sheets. The migration of the binder was measured at the coated surface using the ATR-FTIR. Data from the trial was compared back to the calibration curve to quantify the surface binder amounts.

Results showed that as the level of carboxylation went up the amount of binder migration was reduced. In addition, the use of carboxylated latex in coatings tended to show better migration reducing results than just viscosity control alone. The use of the ATR-FTIR was shown to be effective for surface latex study.