Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology


The major concern of this report is binder migration and the factors which play a major role contributing to its presence. The major factors studied were coatings using varied drying methods, adhesive levels, % solids and types of starches.

Results obtained show that to obtain minimal migration coatings should be dried evenly throughout using infrared sources of heat.

Coating with different adhesive levels will vary optical and strength properties. Binder migration is more evident when using lower adhesive levels.

Coating at different % solids did not have any real significant effect in this study due to a very short span in the percentages used.

The major conclusion reached with using various types of Penford Gums is that of viscosity. The higher the viscosity the less overall migration taking place in the coating.