Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


The paper industry today faces higher costs in such fillers as titanium dioxide. The need for extenders to add to the pulp slurries with titanium dioxide is ever increasing. The extender must not lower the strength properties of the paper to any large extent and must yield nearly the same optical properties as titanium dioxide. Fibrous filler has proven to be a filler which meets these requirements. There exists, however, several different methods for the addition of the fillers to the pulp stock. Each of these methods give different results in the final sheet of paper. It was found from this project the adding titanium dioxide first or while precipitating out the fibrous filler with the total amount of pulp gave the highest optical properties. This is because of one of two reasons. Fibrous filler, while precipitating, increases the retention of the other fillers present. The other reason is that when titanium dioxide is present along with the fibers while fibrous filler is precipitating, something happens in the filler orientation which causes a difference in the way the light rays are scattered in the paper. Fibrous filler when used as an extender can therefore be used to partially eliminate some of the titanium dioxide at a cost savings.