Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Pulp and Paper Technology


The objective of this thesis was to increase sheet strength by partial carboxymethylation of cellulose fibers. A survey of literature disclosed the fact this had been done

in an alcoholic solution. An experimental procedure of partially carboxymethylating individual fibers in an aqueous solution was developed. It did not increase sheet strength and a second procedure was developed. In this method formed sheets were subjected to a carboxymethylation treatment. An evaluation of test data led to the following conclusions:

  1. Dry and wet strength increases were obtained by treating a sheet with caustic.
  2. The carboxymethylation procedure did not increase sheet strength, but a reaction did occur in the monochloroacetic acid bath.
  3. Some dry strength increase shown by unneutralized caustic treated sheets was due to absorbed caustic.
  4. Fiber shrinkage and swelling account for dry strength increases of neutralized CMC and caustic sheets.
  5. Wet strength of the caustic treated sheets was not caused by absorbed caustic.