Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


Many studies have been performed with the purpose of determining the effects of fines on paper properties. However, many of these studies fail to develop characterizations of the fines themselves before relating the presence of these fines to sheet properties. This study first developed complete characterizations of fines and then related the properties of the fines to properties of paper containing these fines.

Bleached kraft, unbleached kraft, and TMP pulps from a southern pine were used in this project. Characterization of the fines included determination of physical features of the fines, size distribution, water retention value (WRV), drainability, and compressibility. Fines were then replaced in their respective pulp sources in levels from 0% to .30%. Handsheets were made and tested to determine various strength and optical properties.

Results showed the bleached fines to be fibrillar, compressible, and hydrophilic. Presence of these fines promoted burst and tensile strength, while tear, opacity, and brightness suffered. Unbleached fines were a mix of flake-like and fibrillar material. These fines also promoted tensile and burst, while tear strength suffered. The TMP fines were comprised of chunky and flake-like material, and exhibited poor water holding and compressibility characteristics. Presence of these fines in a sheet promoted tensile and tear indexes, but decreased the scattering coefficient of the sheet.