Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering


The major reason for calendering is to impart both smoothness and gloss on paper. Smoothness, which is the degree of flatness of the surface, and gloss, which is a measurement of light reflectance, are unrelated parameters. However, both smoothness and gloss are related to printing process. Strength properties affect the printing machine runability. In general, calendering reduces strength properties of the paper. The degree of finish obtained in a soft-nip calendering depends on characteristics of the paper, such as moisture content and type of filling materials. The purpose of this study is to determine the best conditions for soft-nip calender by setting different ranges of temperature, pressure, and number of nips. In this study, three major control parameters, temperature, pressure, and number of nips, are applied for soft-nip calendering. By using uncoated paper, the investigation carried out the parameters which produce optimum surf ace, strength and printability properties. The study is conducted using a 3K factorial design. There are 27 different stages. The data was analyzed using Statistic Analyze System (SAS). By using the analysis of variance in SAS program, P-values can be determined. Most of the results from this study followed the expected results from the literature values. According to this experiment, high temperature, pressure and number of nips give the optimum conditions for gloss. However, number of nips do not interact with temperature and pressure. High pressure and number of nips improves smoothness but there is not any interaction between pressure and number of nips.