Date of Award


Degree Name

Bachelor of Science


Paper Science and Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Steven Kukolich


Surface sizing agents can be major contributors to a mill's BOD loading. A 2% solids application of polyvinyl alcohol will give little or no BOD as compared to a high BOD resulting from a 8% solids application of anionic and cationic starch. The use of polyvinyl alcohol will give equivalent or better strength properties along with better sizing and high wax picks with only about one-half to three-quarters of a pound pick up per 3300 ft2. High sizing values were achieved with the starches but at higher pick up levels. Polyvinyl alcohol could be best used in combination with starch at the size press.