Date of Defense



Teaching, Learning and Educational Studies

First Advisor

Dr. Gail Landberg

Second Advisor

Dr. Paul Johnston

Third Advisor

Tricia Martin


Look into your average Michigan elementary school classroom and note what you see: the teacher has planned a fabulous lesson on multiplication and in front of each student are 10 colorful plastic rows containing 10 cubes each. As the teacher asks the students to put their cubes into five groups of six, one boy starts talking to his neighbor about the cartoon he watched the night before. A girl gets up and sharpens her pencil for two solid minutes. A boy goes to get a drink, and elbows another student on his way to the fountain. A girl who is trying very hard to listen to the teacher accidentally drops her cubes and several other students laugh. The teacher admonishes the class, but the culprits are not even listening. After the directions are given, one student asks aloud what they are supposed to be doing, and groans when the teacher re-explains. The principal comes over the public address system to make an announcement, but the teacher cannot even hear over the dull roar her class emits.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Campus Only