Date of Defense




First Advisor

Kay Alexander

Second Advisor

Dr. Joseph Reish


Pharmacia and Upjohn (PNU) is a pharmaceutical company that utilizes batch chemical processes. There are about 600 different processes that use more than 2,000 different chemical materials. Usage of these chemicals has an impact on the environment.

Chemicals are released to the environment from PNU in a variety of ways. Exit streams from the processes can be sent to an underground injection well, the south tank farm, surface water, POTW (Kalamazoo water treatment plant), and to the air. The south tank farm is a holding location for materials that will eventually be sent off-site for use as a fuel in cement kilns. Releases to surface water include releases to the Upjohn pond, creek, and storm water.

Air emissions have been reduced by the use of two regional control systems. These systems are the Vapor Recovery Unit (VRU) and Thermal Oxidizer (TOx). Process equipment is vented to either unit, depending on the types of volatile materials emitted. The VRU is basically a condenser that runs at -65 °C. It condenses the vapor, and the condensed liquid is then sent elsewhere for further treatment. Chemicals sent to the TOx are incinerated.

Information about the environmental impact of certain chemicals is required for different federal and state environmental reports. Every company that is required to file environmental reports is assigned a Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) code. The codes for the types of companies that are most commonly required to report releases (SIC codes 20-39) are listed in the Table l1. PNU is under SIC code 28, Chemical and Allied Products.

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Campus Only