Date of Defense



Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

First Advisor

Dr. Bob E. White

Second Advisor

Dr. Tycho K. Fredericks

Third Advisor

Dr. Steven E. Butt


Paramount Charter Academy (PCA) is a charter school located in Kalamazoo, Michigan, currently managed by National Heritage Academies. PCA currently has 636 students enrolled in grades young fives, kindergarten, and first through eighth. The school system encourages family involvement and, in doing so, does not have mass school bussing system. For those students that do require vehicular transportation, parents, guardians, or other permissible drivers drop-off in the mornings (school starts at 8:15am) and pick-up students in the afternoons (walkers are released at 3:15pm; remaining students at 3:20pm).

Access Setting

Honors Thesis-Campus Only